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Utama > Hypertension > Calcium Channel Blocker (CCBs)

Calcium Channel Blocker (CCBs)




Doses are individualized depending on patient’s condition. Please consult your doctor or pharmacist for the suggestion of treatment for your hypertension. Once you are started on your hypertension medication, take the medication regularly and according to instructions.


Generally, it is advisable to be after meals to reduce stomach discomfort. Otherwise, refer product insert for specific instruction:

Generic Name Administration



With or without food. Avoid grapefruit juice.



With or without food.



Take with or without food or with a light meal.

Mechanism Of Action

CCBs bind to L-type calcium channels located on the vascular smooth muscle, cardiac myocytes, and cardiac nodal tissue (sinoatrial and atrioventricular nodes). These channels are responsible for regulating the influx of calcium into muscle cells, which in turn stimulate smooth muscle contraction and cardiac myocyte contraction.

By blocking calcium entry into the cell, CCBs cause vascular smooth muscle relaxation (vasodilation), decrease myocardial force generation (negative inotropy), decrease heart rate (negative chronotropy), and decrease conduction velocity within the heart (negative dromotropy). By causing vascular smooth muscle relaxation, CCBs decrease systemic vascular resistance, which lowers arterial blood pressure.

Side Effects

Side effects for each drugs are individualized. Most common side effects for each drugs are listed below:

Generic Name Possible Common Side Effects Include
Nifedipine Headache, oedema, constipation, feeling unwell
Amlodipne Oedema, headache, dizziness, fatigue, somnolence (drowsiness or sleepiness), nausea, abdominal pain
Felodipine Flushing, headache, palpitation, dizziness, fatigue, peripheral oedema (swollen of the feet or hand due to fluid retention)

Consult your doctors or pharmacists if you are facing any side effects from the antihypertensive drugs that you are taking.


Advisable to keep in the original envelopes with instruction on how to take clearly stated on its label. Keep at room temperature otherwise, refer product insert for specific temperature storage.

For further information, refer MyHealth web site ‘Cara Penyimpanan Ubat Yang Betul’.


  1. Cardiovascular Pharmacology Concepts.
  3. British National Formulary (BNF) 61 March 2011
  4. MIMS 128th Edition 2012
  5. ‘Cara Penyimpanan Ubat Yang Betul’.
  6. Mechanism of Action of Calcium Channel Blocke.
Last Reviewed : 2 March 2016
Writer : Azura Binti Musa
Translator : Azura Binti Musa
Accreditor : Dr. Siti Norlina Binti Md. Said

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