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Utama > Renal (page 4)


Vesicoureteric Reflux (VUR)

What is VUR? VUR happens when urine that collects in the bladder flows back into the ureters and often into the kidneys. VUR occurs at a frequency of 1 in every 100 individuals.   THE URINARY SYSTEM Both the ureters enter the bladder at a diagonal angle and have a …

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Anaemia And CKD

Overview Anaemia is what happens when your red blood cells are in short supply. Red blood cells carry oxygen via a protein known as haemoglobin from your lungs to all parts of your body, giving you the energy you need for daily activities. The usual test to detect anaemia is …

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Lupus Nephritis

What is lupus nephritis? Lupus nephritis is a kidney disorder or inflammation caused by systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE or lupus). SLE is a chronic autoimmune disease in which the body’s immune system becomes damaged and attacks the patient’s own cells and tissues. Lupus nephritis occurs when SLE involves the kidneys. What is …

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IgA Nephropathy

What is IgA nephropathy? Nephropathy is damage or disease of the kidney. IgA is a type of antibody that helps the body fight against infection. IgA nephropathy is a kidney disease in which this naturally occurring antibody is deposited in the kidneys. This subsequently leads to inflammation of the kidneys, …

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